| A large number of bilateral
teleoperation control architectures in the literature have been designed
based on assumed impedance models of the master and slave manipulators.
However, hydraulic or heavily geared and many other manipulators cannot
be properly described by impedance models. In this paper, a common four-channel
bilateral control architecture designed for the above impedance models is
extended to teleoperation systems with master and slave manipulators of
either the admittance or impedance type. Furthermore, control parameters
that provide perfect transparency under ideal conditions are found for each
type of teleoperation system. Because in practice such parameters may not
lead to systems that are robust to time delays and model uncertainties,
an analysis of the stability and performance robustness of this very general
architecture is also presented. The analysis uses the passivity-based Llewellyn
two-port network absolute stability criterion, as well as bounds on the
minimum and range of values of the impedance transmitted to the operator.
The results of these evaluations provide design guidelines on choosing a
particular control architecture and its parameters given different master
and slave manipulator structures.