Multimedia  

 

Distributed Manipulation Using Discrete Actuator Arrays
 
J.E. Luntz University of Michigan
W. Messner and H. Choset Carnegie Mellon University
 
Multimedia extension #2: Open-loop simulator and results.
 
Because of its ability to efficiently simulate systems with discrete changes in state (in our case, the set of supports) Simulink is particularly suited for the computational model of the MDMS. The simulation models require Matlab V.5.3 or higher and Simulink V.3 or higher. Simulation results can be viewed without Simulink.
  
This page contains:
• A desctiption of the simulink model
• Instructions on how to download and run the model
• Sample output data You can run these in Matlab without Simulink.
 
Model Description
 
The high-level model is shown in Figure 1. Simulink represents models as block diagrams where directed arrows represent the flow of time-varying scalar (thin lines) or vector (thick lines) signals. Each block represents a function which operates on the signal. The leftmost block performs the integration of the object's motion. The constants of motion are its input, and its outputs are the position and angle of the object. It contains state information about the current position, orientation, and speed of translation and rotation of the object. The mux block combines the position vector and angle scalar signals into a single 3-element vector. The "Compute Supports" block contains an external function which uses the object's position and orientation and returns a "mask" vector, which is a list of ones and zeroes representing the support state of each cell. This mask feeds into the rightmost block which checks if the mask has changed, and if so, recalculates the constants of motion. The updated constants feed back into the motion integration block as the set of supports changes.
 
Figure 1: The high level open-loop model in Simulink. Lines represent time varying signals, with arrows representing the flow of information. Blocks act as dynamic filters acting on the signals.
 
The details of the "Integration Of Object Dynamics" block are shown in Figure 2. The constants of motion, which are fed back as a single vector, are split up into components corresponding to each constant (either vector or scalar). The appropriate constants are used in conjunction with the object's current position and velocity to calculate the total force f and total torque t. The "f" and "tau" blocks involve the multiplication and addition of the constants and position and velocity signals according to Equations 18 and 23 (in the text). The details of the "f" block are shown in Figure 3, and the details of the "tau" block are shown in Figure 4. The force and torque signals are then used in an expression of Newton's law to produce the linear and rotational accelerations by dividing by the mass and inertia of the object. The accelerations are then integrated twice to produce the velocities and position and orientation of the object.
 
Figure 2: Details of the "Integration of Object Dynamics" block. This block uses the constants of motion to compute the forces on the object and then applies Newton's law to integrate the motion.
 
Figure 3: Details of the "f" block. Because of limitations in older versions of Simulink, the matrix ks and vector Xcm are multiplied by splitting ks into rows and performing dot producs.
 
Figure 4: Details of the "tau" block.
 
The details of the "Check for Change of Supports and Recalculation" block are shown in Figure 5. The mask vector feeds through a memory block to produce the mask vector at the "previous" time step. (Note: The memory block does not maintain a constant step size. It is updated along with the simulation as the step size changes dynamically to find the exact time of transition. Thus there is not a true previous time.) The block compares the previous value of the mask to the current value, and if they are different, the Recalculate block is triggered. When triggered, this block generates new values of the constants of motion according to their definitions in Equations 18 and 23 (in the text). The details of the "Recalculate Block" are shown in Figure 6.
 
Figure 5: Details of the "Check for Change of Supports and Recalculation" block. The memory and not equal blocks check for a change in supports. A change triggers the recalculate block to update the constants of motion.
 
Figure 6: Details of the "Recalculate" block.
 
Running the Model
The following files are required to run the model:
 
• simopenloop.mdl
• setupsimopenloop.m
• isinbox.m
• recalcconsts.m
 
Also, at least one of the following is required to set up a velocity field (the first in the list is the default, but you should download them all).
 
• genellipticfield.m
• ellipticfield.m
• squeezefield.m
• skewsqueezefield.m
• transsqueezefield.m
 
Finally, the following files are useful for viewing the simulation results and the results of saved sample simulations.
 
• animate.m
• makeplot.m
 
Download the files into a local directory either by right-clicking on each of the links above or by downloading and uncompressing one of the following file which contains all the open and closed-loop simulation files and sample runs.
 
• simfiles.zip
• simfiles.tar.gz
 
To run the model, start matlab and change to the directory in which you saved the files. To open the model, type, at the Matlab prompt:
 
simopenloop
 
This will open the main model window (Figure 1). To run the model, you first must run the startup script "setupsimopenloop.m" which defines the positions and velocities of the cells, the size, weight, and initial conditions of the object, the coefficient of friction, the length of simulation, etc. Note that you can edit this file to change these parameters (see the comments in the file for instructions). To run the script, type, at the Matlab prompt:
 
setupsimopenloop
 
Once this script is run, you can start the simulation by selecting "Start" of the "Simulation" menu in the main simulation window or by typing Control-t in the main simulation window. After a few seconds, Simulink will beep when the simulation finishes.
Simulink saves signals from the simulation as Matlab variables for plotting and animation after the simulation runs. The position of the center of mass of the object is stored in the two-column variable Xc, the orientation of the object is stored in the one-column variable theta, and the mask vector is stored in the n-column variable masks (where n is the number of cells). In addition, the times at which these variables are stored are stored in the one-column variable t.
The script "animate.m" uses these stored variables to display a pseudo-real-time (assuming you computer is fast enough) animation of the recorded motion of the object (one frome of which is shown in Figure 7. To view this animation, type, at the Matlab plot:
 
animate
 
 
Figure 7: Final result of the "animate.m" script.
 
The script "makeplot.m" uses the stored variables to make static plots of the progression of the object. Both "overhead" (Figure 8) and position and orientation vs. time plots (Figure 9)are made. To view these plots, type, at the Matlab plot:
 
makeplot
 
Figure 8: Overhead plot from the "makeplot.m" script.
 
Figure 9: Position and orientation vs. time plots from the "makeplot.m" script.
 
Sample Simulation Runs
The results of a simulation can be saved by saving the relevant variables from the Matlab variable environment. To do this, type, at the Matlab prompt:
save foo Lx Ly V X Xc masks t theta
 
The variables will be stored in the file name "foo.mat".
To load a set of saved variables from the file "foo.mat", type, at the Matlab prompt:
 
load foo
 
The variable saved in "foo.mat" will be loaded into the Matlab workspace. At this point, you can run the "animate.m" and "makeplot.m" scripts as described above. The following set of stored runs is provided with this appendix:
 
ellipticgoodanim.mat: This is the orientable object example from the paper. The object dimensions are 4.3 by 2.7 cell spacings.
ellipticbadanim.mat: This is the unorientable object example from the paper. The object dimensions are 4.7 by 2.3 cell spacings.
smallstableanim.mat: An object finds a stable pose between cells. This demonstrates that even an object which is locally orientable may find other stable equilibria.
smallstableanim.mat: An object without the Positive Rotation Property finds a secondary unstable equilibria.
unstablebadanim.mat: A very large object without the Positive Rotation Property finds a secondary unstable equilibria.
tiltedellipticanim.mat: This and the following two are examples of fields resulting from skew-symmetric but non-diagonal ks. The fields are simply rotated versions of the simple elliptic field.
tiltedellipticanim2.mat
tiltedellipticanim3.mat
squeezecentanim.mat: An orientable object centered relative to the cells on a squeeze field moves as expected.
squeezeoffcentanim.mat: An orientable object off-center relative to the cells on a squeeze field moves shows unexpected behavior. Remember that we defined orientability only in terms of symmetric squeeze-like fields.
squeezeoffcentcleananim.mat: An orientable object off-center in a different way relative to the cells on a squeeze again behaves as expected. The behavior depends greatly on the initial condition relative to the discrete array.
transsqueezeanim.mat: A squeeze filed superimposed with a uniform field along the squeeze line transports an object while approximately maintaining orientation along the line. Since the symmetry of the field relative to the center of the object changes as the object moves between cells, it bounces around in orientation.
 
Click on image to enlarge
 

 
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