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Volume 23 Issue 3 - Publication Date: 1 March 2004
 
A Gain-Switching Control Scheme for Position-Error-Based Bilateral Teleoperation: Contact Stability Analysis and Controller Design
 
Liy Nia Handshake Interactive Technologies Inc., 40 Weber Street East, Lobby Suite 50, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada N2H 6R3 and David W. L. Wang Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
 

To lower the cost of a force-reflecting teleoperation system, position errors instead of direct measurements from force/torque sensors can be used for force feedback. An investigation on transparency shows that position-error-based teleoperation provides poor transparency when using constant controller gains, and this can be overcome by gain switching. The scenario studied in this paper is a position-error-based bilateral teleoperation system when the slave robot is either in free motion or colliding with a stationary stiff environment. A contact stability analysis is presented for teleoperation systems with constant controller gains and then extended to a gain-switching teleoperation system. Issues on the design of a gain-switching control scheme are discussed. The effectiveness of the proposed gain-switching control scheme is evaluated experimentally.

 
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