Volume 23 Issue 9- Publication Date: 1 September 2004
Telemanipulation with Time Delays
G. Niemeyer Telerobotics Lab, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA and J.-J.E. Slotine Nonlinear Systems Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

In this paper we survey the development of the wave variable concept and examine wave-based teleoperation. We study the behavior of force reflecting systems under unknown but constant transmission delays, ranging from periods less than the human reaction time to several seconds. Passive transmission procedures guarantee system stability, but wave reflections and spurious dynamics may interfere with normal operation. Using wave variables for the analysis and implementation, and making appropriate design choices, a system with consistent and predictable behavior is constructed. This design methodology aims to create a virtual tool which accounts for the implicit limitations imposed by the delay. These developments also form the basis for extensions to wave-based prediction and application to variable delays, such as those inherent to Internet-based telemanipulation.

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